Characterization of the Microbial Diversity and Chemical Composition of Gouda Cheese Made by Potential Probiotic Strains as an Adjunct Starter Culture

Nam Su Oh, Jae Yeon Joung, Ji Young Lee, Sae Hun Kim, Younghoon Kim

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6 Citations (Scopus)


This study characterized the microbial diversity and chemical properties of Gouda cheese made by probiotics during ripening periods. Lactobacillus plantarum H4 (H4) and Lactobacillus fermentum H9 (H9), which demonstrate probiotic properties and bioactivity, were used as adjunct starter cultures. Gouda cheese made with H4 (GCP1) and H9 (GCP2) demonstrated the highest production of formic acid and propionic acid, respectively. Moreover, the bacterial diversity, including richness and evenness of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), increased in probiotic cheeses. Specifically, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Streptococcaceae were present at higher concentrations in probiotic cheeses than in control Gouda cheese (GCC). The proportion of H4 in GCP1 increased and culminated at 1.76%, whereas H9 in GCP2 decreased during ripening. Peptide profiles were altered by the addition of probiotics and included various bioactive peptides. In particular, three peptide fragments are newly detected. Therefore, Gouda cheese could be used as an effective probiotic carrier for H4 and H9.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7357-7366
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Oct 5



  • adjunct cultures
  • Gouda cheese
  • microbial community
  • organic acid
  • peptide profiling
  • probiotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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