Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM2.5–1.0) and coarse (PM10–2.5) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM)

Sang Hoon Byeon, Robert Willis, Thomas M. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2090-2104
Number of pages15
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Feb 13

Keywords

  • CCSEM
  • Indoor
  • Particulate matter
  • Passive sampling
  • Subway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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