Chloroform induces HIF-1α-dependent VEGF expression in human keratinocytes

Jae Jun Nam, Hana Lee, Hyun Cheol Bae, Jinhee Kim, Sang Hoon Jeong, Woo In Ryu, Sang Wook Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a primary angiogenic factor, can be expressed under various pathological conditions. We showed that VEGF was upregulated when human keratinocytes were treated with the volatile organic compound chloroform. We investigated the regulation of VEGF expression by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α, a protein that normally mediates the expression of proteins in hypoxia, controlled VEGF expression in human keratinocytes treated with chloroform. No significant change was seen in HIF-1α mRNA level, consistent with previous reports that HIF-1α protein is constitutively expressed and degraded. Furthermore, transfection of cells with plasmids that overexpressed HIF-1α upregulated VEGF expression. Small interfering RNA against HIF-1α suppressed chloroform-induced VEGF expression in keratinocytes, indicating that HIF-1α was involved in VEGF expression. Thus, the results of this study indicated that HIF-1α mediated the expression of VEGF in human keratinocytes treated with chloroform.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-340
Number of pages6
JournalMolecular and Cellular Toxicology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec


  • Chloroform
  • Human keratinocytes
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Chloroform induces HIF-1α-dependent VEGF expression in human keratinocytes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this