For reasons not yet determined, chronic liver disease (CLD) has been a leading cause of excess morbidity and mortality in central Harlem. We conducted a case series and case-control analysis of demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and alcohol-intake-related information from patients with CLD and age- and sex-matched hospitalized control patients. Patients' sera were tested for markers of viral hepatitis. The presumed etiology of CLD among case-patients was as follows: both alcohol abuse and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 24 persons (46% of case-patients); alcohol abuse alone, 15 (29%); HCV infection alone, 6 (12%); both alcohol abuse and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 3 (6%); and 1 each (2%) from: 1) schistosomiasis, 2) sarcoidosis, 3) unknown causes, and 4) alcohol abuse, chronic HBV, and HCV combined. In the case-control analysis, patients who had both alcoholism and either HBV (odds ratio [OR]: 6.3; 95% CI: 0.5-334) or HCV (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.3-6.2) were at increased risk for CLD, whereas patients who had only one of these three factors were not at increased risk for CLD. Patients who tested positive for the hepatitis G virus (HGV) did not have a significantly increased risk of CLD, and neither severity of CLD nor mortality was greater among these patients. Most patients in central Harlem who had CLD had liver damage from a combination of alcohol abuse and chronic viral hepatitis. Alcohol and hepatitis viruses appear to be synergistically hepatotoxic; this synergy appears to explain both the high rate of CLD in central Harlem and the recent reductions in this rate. Persons at risk for chronic HBV and HCV infection should be counseled about their increased risk of CLD if they consume excessive alcohol. Morbidity and mortality from liver disease could be decreased further by a reduction in alcohol consumption among persons who have chronic HBV and HCV infection, avoidance of needle sharing, and hepatitis B vaccination.
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