Previously we have reported that astrocytes deprived of glucose were highly vulnerable to peroxynitrite (Choi and Kim, J. Neurosci. Res. 54 (1998) 870; Neurosci. Lett. 256 (1988) 109; Ju et al., J. Neurochem. 74 (2000) 1989). Here we report that ciclopirox, which is clinically used as an anti-fungal agent, completely prevents the increased death in glucose-deprived astrocytes exposed to 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1, a peroxynitrite-releasing reagent). The increased vulnerability was in good correlation with the peroxynitrite-evoked decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) in astrocytes. A simultaneous exposure to glucose deprivation and SIN-1 rapidly depolarized MTP and depleted ATP in astrocytes. Inclusion of ciclopirox initially increased the MTP, maintained it high, and blocked the ATP depletion in glucose-deprived SIN-1-treated astrocytes. However, ciclopirox did not prevent the depletion of reduced glutathione in glucose-deprived SIN-1-treated astrocytes. Consistently, ciclopirox did not scavenge various kinds of oxidants including peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Ciclopirox has been experimentally used as a cell cycle G1/S phase transition blocker (Hoffman et al., Cytometry 12 (1991) 26). Flow cytometry analysis, however, showed that the cytoprotective effect of ciclopirox was not attributed to its inhibition of the cell cycle progression. The present results indicate that ciclopirox protects astrocytes from peroxynitrite cytotoxicity by attenuating peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.
- Cell cycle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Drug Discovery