Clostridium geopurificans strain MJ1 sp. Nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows via fermentation and reduces the cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

Man Jae Kwon, Na Wei, Kayleigh Millerick, Jovan Popovic, Kevin Finneran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


A fermentative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MJ1 T , was isolated from an RDX contaminated aquifer at a live-fire training site in Northwest NJ, United States. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA base composition, strain MJ1 T was assigned to the Firmicutes. The DNA G+C content was 42.8 mol%. Fermentative growth was supported by glucose and citrate in a defined basal medium. The bacterium is a strict anaerobe that grows between at pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and 18 and 37 °C. The culture did not grow with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as the electron acceptor or mineralize RDX under these conditions. However, MJ1 T transformed RDX into MNX, methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, formate, ammonium, nitrous oxide, and nitrate. The nearest phylogenetic relative with a validly published name was Desulfotomaculum guttoideum (95 % similarity). However, MJ1 T was also related to Clostridium celerecrescens DSM 5628 (95 %), Clostridium indolis DSM 755 (94 %), and Clostridium sphenoides DSM 632 (94 %). DNA:DNA hybridization with these strains was between 6.7 and 58.7 percent. The dominant cellular fatty acids (greater than 5 % of the total, which was 99.0 % recovery) were 16:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) (32.12 %), 18:1cis 11 dimethyl acetal (DMA) (16.47 %), 16:1cis 9 DMA (10.28 %), 16:1cis 9 FAME (8.10 %), and 18:1cis 9 DMA (5.36 %). On the basis of morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic data, Clostridium geopurificans is proposed as a new species in genus Clostridium, with strain MJ1 T as the type strain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-750
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Microbiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Cite this