Clubfoot analysis with three-dimensional foot models

Hae Ryong Song, Norris C. Carroll, Jerry Neyt, Justin M. Carter, J. Han, Charles R. D'Amato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to develop a method of defining, in mathematical terms, the interpositional relationships of the bones of the hindfoot complex in the idiopathic clubfoot and the neurogenic clubfoot. The neurogenic clubfoot and contralateral normal-appearing foot of a stillborn infant with myelomeningocele, and the normal foot of a 10-year-old were sectioned with a cryomicrotome. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the clubfoot and the normal foot of a 3-month-old boy were obtained. Using a computer program, three-dimensional foot models were generated from the digitized cryomicrotome sections and from the MRIs. The central principal axes were determined for the talus and calcaneus. The long central principal axes of the talus and calcaneus were neutrally rotated with reference to the bimalleolar axis in the idiopathic clubfoot while in the neurogenic clubfoot the long central principal axis of the talus was medially rotated 52°and that of the calcaneus 10°. The talocalcaneal angles defined by the long central principal axes in the superior and medial views were 0°and 10°, respectively, in the idiopathic clubfoot, and 42°and 56°, respectively, in the neurogenic clubfoot.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-11
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Part B
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Jan
Externally publishedYes


  • Clubfoot
  • Cryomicrotome
  • MRI
  • Three-dimensional foot model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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