Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

Patrick Lynett, Robert Weiss, Willington Renteria, Giorgio De La Torre Morales, Sang Young Son, Maria Elizabeth Martin Arcos, Breanyn Tiel MacInnes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5.5-ton navigation buoys. Numerical simulations indicate that currents in the Canal de Itabaca exceeded 4 m/s (~8 knots), a very large flow speed for a navigational waterway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1189-1206
Number of pages18
JournalPure and Applied Geophysics
Volume170
Issue number6-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Aug 29
Externally publishedYes

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Tsunamis
tsunami
Japan
waterways
shorelines
canals
beaches
harbors
Canals
Beaches
Ports and harbors
canal
shoreline
Computer simulation
national parks
harbor
buoys
beach
damage
flooding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Lynett, P., Weiss, R., Renteria, W., De La Torre Morales, G., Son, S. Y., Arcos, M. E. M., & MacInnes, B. T. (2013). Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 170(6-8), 1189-1206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0568-3

Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands. / Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sang Young; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel.

In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 170, No. 6-8, 29.08.2013, p. 1189-1206.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lynett, P, Weiss, R, Renteria, W, De La Torre Morales, G, Son, SY, Arcos, MEM & MacInnes, BT 2013, 'Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands', Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 170, no. 6-8, pp. 1189-1206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0568-3
Lynett P, Weiss R, Renteria W, De La Torre Morales G, Son SY, Arcos MEM et al. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands. Pure and Applied Geophysics. 2013 Aug 29;170(6-8):1189-1206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0568-3
Lynett, Patrick ; Weiss, Robert ; Renteria, Willington ; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio ; Son, Sang Young ; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin ; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel. / Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands. In: Pure and Applied Geophysics. 2013 ; Vol. 170, No. 6-8. pp. 1189-1206.
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