Appraisal of muscle mass is important when considering the serious consequences of sarcopenia in an aging society. However, the associations between sarcopenia and its clinical outcomes might vary according to the method applied in its diagnosis. We compared the relationships between cardiometabolic risk parameters and sarcopenia defined according to three different diagnostic methods using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) adjusted by height squared and BMI (ASM/height2 and ASM/BMI) measured using DXA and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (tmCSA) adjusted by weight (tmCSA/weight) measured using CT were used as indices of muscle mass. Sarcopenia was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean ASM/height2, ASM/BMI, or tmCSA/weight of a young reference group. ASM/BMI and tmCSA/weight showed a negative relationship with several components of metabolic syndrome and HOMA-IR, whereas ASM/height2 was positively associated with theses cardiometabolic risk factors. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that ASM/BMI-defined sarcopenia was significantly associated with increased HOMA-IR (P = 0.01) and prevalence of visceral obesity (P = 0.03) and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.025), while ASM/height2- and tmCSA/weight-defined sarcopenia were not. ASM/BMI-defined sarcopenia exhibits a closer relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors than does ASM/height2- or tmCSA/weight-defined sarcopenia.
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