To report the incidence and the factors of consecutive esotropia (ET) in patients with immediate postoperative overcorrection of at least 17 prism diopters (PD) after surgery for intermittent exotropia (X(T)). Four-hundred-five patients under the age of 18 were included in this study. They underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (LROU-rec) or unilateral recession-resection (R&R) for X(T). On postoperative day one, the patients with at least 17 PD overcorrection were classified as group 1 and those with less than 17 PD as group 2. Age, refractive error, type of surgery, lateral incomitancy, and the incidence of consecutive ET were analyzed for each group. Group 1 consisted of 116 patients (28.6%) and group 2 consisted of 289 (71.4%). At the six-month follow-up visit, consecutive ET had developed in 16 patients (13.8%) in group 1, and in five patients (1.7%) in group 2 (p<0.001). The occurrence of consecutive ET was not related to age at the time of surgery (p=0.46 in group 1; p=0.54 in group 2), refractive error (p=0.18 in group 1; p=0.08 in group 2), or the type of surgery (p=0.69 in group 1; p=1.00 in group 2). The incidence in group 1 was 23.8% in patients with lateral incomitancy and 8.1% in patients without lateral incomitancy (p<0.05). In group 2, the incidence was 4.4% in patients with lateral incomitancy and 0.5% in patients without lateral incomitancy (p=0.04). Consecutive ET developed in 13.8% of patients with immediate overcorrection of at least 17 PD. Lateral incomitancy was the most important risk factor.
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