Controlling the defect density to improve the output power of InGaN/GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes by using substrates patterned with SiO2 lenses

Daesung Kang, Da Som Kim, Sun Kyung Kim, Kiyoung Song, Myunghoon Jung, Hwanhee Jeong, June O. Song, Tae Yeon Seong

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In this study, we investigated the effect of SiO2 lenses on the output power of InGaN/GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs; wavelength = 445 nm) and compared the results to those of reference VLEDs without the SiO2 lenses (planar samples). Arrays of SiO2 lenses (pitch = 3 μm, width = 2.5 μm, height = 1.0 μm) were formed on c-plane sapphire substrates. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the packaged VLEDs with planar and patterned substrates was characterised. At 5 mA, the EQE of the patterned samples was 150% higher than that of the planar samples. A patterned, N-polar, n-GaN sample contained far fewer nanopipes (approximately 2.2 × 105 cm−2) than a planar n-GaN sample (approximately 2.4 × 106 cm−2). Furthermore, the patterned samples contained far fewer threading dislocations (approximately 1.0 × 108 cm−2) than the planar samples (approximately 5.0 × 108 cm−2). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the photoelectrochemical (PEC)-etched patterned samples contained cones that were 150% larger than that of the PEC-etched planar samples. In addition, SEM images, cathode luminescence measurements and finite-difference time-domain simulations were used to characterise the improved light output of the patterned samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2919-2929
Number of pages11
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sep 21



  • external quantum efficiency
  • GaN
  • light emitting diode
  • line defects
  • patterned substrate
  • structural analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics

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