Correlation and comparison of Risser sign versus bone age determination (TW3) between children with and without scoliosis in Korean population

Hitesh N. Modi, Chetna H. Modi, Seung-Woo Suh, Jae Hyuk Yang, Jae-Young Hong

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Background. Most studies comparing the Risser staging for skeletal maturity are representing the American or European standards which are not always applicable to Asian population who have relatively less height and body mass. There is no article available that compares the Risser sign and bone age correlation between patients with idiopathic scoliosis and patients without scoliosis. Materials and methods. To analyze and compare the skeletal age with the Risser sign between scoliosis and non-scoliosis group, a cross-sectional study was done in 418 scoliosis (untreated, bracing or surgically) and 256 non-scoliosis children of Korean origin. Relationship was found in both groups using Pearson correlation test. Results. In scoliosis group, Pearson correlation exhibited significant correlation (p < 0.01) between Risser sign and chronological age (r2 = 0.791 for girls, 0.787 for boys) and Risser sign and TW3 age (r2 = 0.718 for girls, 0.785 for boys). Non-scoliosis group also showed significant relationship (p < 0.01) between Risser sign and chronological age (r2 = 0.893 for girls, 0.879 for boys) and Risser sign and TW3 age (r2 = 0.913 for girls, 0.895 for boys). Similarly, comparing Cobb angles of each patient according to their Risser staging, exhibited that if scoliosis remains untreated Cobb angle will increase with the increase in their Risser staging (r2 = 0.363 for girls, 0.443 for boys; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Our results showed that chronological age is equally as reliable as skeletal age method to compare with Risser sign, and therefore, we do not mean to imply that only the Risser sign compared with skeletal age should be considered in the decision making in idiopathic as well as non-scoliosis patients of Korean ethnicity. Concomitant indicators such as menarchal period, secondary sex characteristics, and recent growth pattern will likely reinforce our data comparing Risser sign with skeletal age in decision making.

Original languageEnglish
Article number36
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Oct 15


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery

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