The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of ginseng leaf as a cosmetic material. In this research, we employed enzymatic treated ginseng leaf by using Ultraflo L to improve the recovery of ginsenosides from the ginseng leaf and studied the biological activities and skin safety of the enzymatic treated ginseng leaf for use as a cosmetic material. The total ginsenoside contents of the non-enzymatic treated ginseng leaf (NEGL) and Ultraflo L treated ginseng leaf (UTGL) were 271 and 406 mg/g, respectively. The level of metabolite ginsenosides (sum of Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, Rh2, and F2) was higher in UTGL (93.1 mg) compared to NEGL (62.4 mg) in one gram ginseng leaf extract. The increase in amounts of ginsenoside types in UTGL compared to NEGL was generally 140% to 157%. UTGL exhibited relatively higher 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (IC50, 2.8 mg/mL) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (IC50, 1.6 mg/mL) radical scavenging activities compared to NEGL (4.8 mg/mL and 2.2 mg/mL). The UTGL group showed normalized hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and visual wrinkling grade induced-UVB exposure. The UTGL did not induce any adverse reactions such as erythema and edema on intact skin sites; however, some guinea pigs treated with UTGL on abraded skin sites showed very slight erythema. The primary irritation index (PII) score of UTGL was 0.05 and it was classified as a practically non-irritating material (PII, 0 to 0.5). In skin sensitization tests with guinea pigs, UTGL had a positive rate of skin sensitization at 40%, and the mean evaluation score was 0.4.
- Enzymatic treatment
- Panax ginseng leaves
- Ultraflo L
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science
- Complementary and alternative medicine
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)