We investigated the antidepressant effect of creatine (CRE) and taurine (TAU) mixtures on behavioural changes and biomarkers in stress-induced depression in Drosophila melanogaster and a mouse model. Following CRE/TAU mixture administration in the Drosophila model, depression-like state induced by vibration, locomotion, climbing activity, and survival rate were measured. The normal stress (NS) group demonstrated decreased movement than the control (CON) group; movements in the CRE/TAU-treated group (particularly 0.15/0.5%) returned to the CON levels. Antidepressant effects of CRE/TAU mixtures were confirmed in a depressive mouse model induced by chronic mild stress. In behavioural assessments, movement and sucrose preference of the CRE/TAU group increased to a similar level as in the positive control group; hippocampal catecholamine and serotonin levels increased significantly. Stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropic and corticotropin-releasing hormones) and inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) increased in the NS group but significantly decreased in the CRE/TAU-treated group. Brain signalling protein expression ratio of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt)/Akt, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)/ERK, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) significantly increased in the CRE/TAU-treated group. These results indicate that CRE/TAU-induced antidepressant effects are associated with increased behavioural patterns and downregulation of stress hormones and cytokines, mediated through Akt and ERK/BDNF pathways in vertebrate models.
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