Creation of nanoporous TiO2 surface onto polyetheretherketone for effective immobilization and delivery of bone morphogenetic protein

Cheol Min Han, Tae Sik Jang, Hyoun Ee Kim, Young Hag Koh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


This study evaluated the utility of the creation of a nanoporous TiO 2 surface to enhance the in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo osseoconductivity of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants by providing favorable sites for the effective immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). A uniform nanoporous TiO2 layer with a pore diameter of ∼70 nm was successfully created by anodizing a Ti film, which had been deposited onto a PEEK substrate via electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. This nanoporous, hydrophilic TiO2 surface enabled the efficient immobilization of BMP-2, resulting in a remarkable enhancement in in vitro biocompatibility that was assessed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The in vivo animal tests also confirmed that the nanoporous TiO2 surface immobilized with BMP-2 could significantly enhance the osseoconductivity of PEEK implants. The BMP-immobilized PEEK implant with the nanoporous TiO2 surface showed much higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio (60%) than the bare PEEK (30%), PEEK with the nanoporous TiO 2 surface (50%) and even BMP-immobilized PEEK without the nanoporous TiO2 surface (32%). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 793-800, 2014.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)793-800
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Mar


  • BMP-2
  • PEEK
  • biocompatibility
  • e-beam coatings
  • titania nanotube

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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