Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance

Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia

Junghoe Kim, Vince D. Calhoun, Eunsoo Shim, Jong-Hwan Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L<inf>1</inf>-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L<inf>1</inf>-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L<inf>1</inf>-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was quantified by using kurtosis/modularity measures and features from the higher hidden layer showed holistic/global FC patterns differentiating SZ from HC. Our proposed schemes and reported findings attained by using the DNN classifier and whole-brain FC data suggest that such approaches show improved ability to learn hidden patterns in brain imaging data, which may be useful for developing diagnostic tools for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders and identifying associated aberrant FC patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-146
Number of pages20
JournalNeuroImage
Volume124
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Schizophrenia
Weights and Measures
Brain
Aptitude
Neuroimaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Learning
Support Vector Machine

Keywords

  • Deep learning
  • Functional connectivity
  • Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Schizophrenia
  • Sparsity
  • Stacked autoencoder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neurology

Cite this

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title = "Deep neural network with weight sparsity control and pre-training extracts hierarchical features and enhances classification performance: Evidence from whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity patterns of schizophrenia",
abstract = "Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2{\%} was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3{\%}). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was quantified by using kurtosis/modularity measures and features from the higher hidden layer showed holistic/global FC patterns differentiating SZ from HC. Our proposed schemes and reported findings attained by using the DNN classifier and whole-brain FC data suggest that such approaches show improved ability to learn hidden patterns in brain imaging data, which may be useful for developing diagnostic tools for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders and identifying associated aberrant FC patterns.",
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AU - Shim, Eunsoo

AU - Lee, Jong-Hwan

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N2 - Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was quantified by using kurtosis/modularity measures and features from the higher hidden layer showed holistic/global FC patterns differentiating SZ from HC. Our proposed schemes and reported findings attained by using the DNN classifier and whole-brain FC data suggest that such approaches show improved ability to learn hidden patterns in brain imaging data, which may be useful for developing diagnostic tools for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders and identifying associated aberrant FC patterns.

AB - Functional connectivity (FC) patterns obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data are commonly employed to study neuropsychiatric conditions by using pattern classifiers such as the support vector machine (SVM). Meanwhile, a deep neural network (DNN) with multiple hidden layers has shown its ability to systematically extract lower-to-higher level information of image and speech data from lower-to-higher hidden layers, markedly enhancing classification accuracy. The objective of this study was to adopt the DNN for whole-brain resting-state FC pattern classification of schizophrenia (SZ) patients vs. healthy controls (HCs) and identification of aberrant FC patterns associated with SZ. We hypothesized that the lower-to-higher level features learned via the DNN would significantly enhance the classification accuracy, and proposed an adaptive learning algorithm to explicitly control the weight sparsity in each hidden layer via L1-norm regularization. Furthermore, the weights were initialized via stacked autoencoder based pre-training to further improve the classification performance. Classification accuracy was systematically evaluated as a function of (1) the number of hidden layers/nodes, (2) the use of L1-norm regularization, (3) the use of the pre-training, (4) the use of framewise displacement (FD) removal, and (5) the use of anatomical/functional parcellation. Using FC patterns from anatomically parcellated regions without FD removal, an error rate of 14.2% was achieved by employing three hidden layers and 50 hidden nodes with both L1-norm regularization and pre-training, which was substantially lower than the error rate from the SVM (22.3%). Moreover, the trained DNN weights (i.e., the learned features) were found to represent the hierarchical organization of aberrant FC patterns in SZ compared with HC. Specifically, pairs of nodes extracted from the lower hidden layer represented sparse FC patterns implicated in SZ, which was quantified by using kurtosis/modularity measures and features from the higher hidden layer showed holistic/global FC patterns differentiating SZ from HC. Our proposed schemes and reported findings attained by using the DNN classifier and whole-brain FC data suggest that such approaches show improved ability to learn hidden patterns in brain imaging data, which may be useful for developing diagnostic tools for SZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders and identifying associated aberrant FC patterns.

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