Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application

Ki Yong Kwon, Hyung Min Lee, Maysam Ghovanloo, Arthur Weber, Wen Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number69
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Issue numberMAY
Publication statusPublished - 2015 May 6
Externally publishedYes


  • Implantable neural interface
  • Microelectromechanical systems
  • Optogenetics
  • Optrode array
  • Switched-capacitor based stimulators
  • Wireless power transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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