IEC 61850, which drives to digitalize information in the entire system, is being increasingly adopted in the power utility industry, since the last decade. It is necessary for all devices communicating with distributed digital data to have a common understanding of time. As protection and control devices are directly related to the safety of the power system, they are strictly required to have time accuracies. This paper describes the design of a hybrid slave clock with the transparent clock (TC) functionality defined in the IEEE 1588 precision time protocol. The design objective includes not only the synchronization of the time accuracy but also the transient time, as specified in the IEC/IEEE 61850-9-3 precision time profile for power utility automation. To comply with these objectives, we adopt a hardware-software co-design approach. The timestamp of each port is implemented by hardware. Also, they are connected by hardware to calculate the bridge time on the fly, enabling the design to have a one-step TC functionality with low latency. On the other hand, the synchronizing controller is implemented by software for adapting to the varying external conditions. The controller uses the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) to achieve stable steady-state performance. Simultaneously, the least-squares estimator is utilized to estimate the initial conditions of the LQG controller for reducing the transition time. Experimental results show the three-sigma time inaccuracies are 15.6 ns for the TC and 149 ns for the slave with an average transition time of 13.5 s, satisfying the IEEE/IEC 61850-9-3 criteria.
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2018 Feb 20|
- Finite impulse response (FIR) filter
- high availability seamless redundancy (HSR)
- IEC 62439-3
- IEC Standards
- IEEE 1588
- linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller
- Peer-to-peer computing
- power utility automation
- precision time protocol (PTP)
- redundancy network
- time synchronization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering