Determination of six iodotrihalomethanes in drinking water in Korea

Bomi Woo, Ju Hyun Park, Seungki Kim, Jeongae Lee, Jong-Ho Choi, Heesoo Pyo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemicals regulated by Environmental Protection Agency's first drinking water regulation issued after the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Among THMs, iodotrihalomethanes (I-THMs) are produced by treating water containing iodides ion with chlorine or ozone. I-THMs are more carcinogenic and biotoxic than chlorinated or brominated THMs. The purpose of this study was to analyze of I-THMs in drinking water using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with various extraction solvents. The calibration curves ranged from 0.01 to 20 ng/mL and the correlation coefficient showed a good linearity of 0.99 or more. The method detection limit ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 ng/mL. The accuracy of the LLE method ranged from 99.43 to 112.40%, and its precision ranged from 1.10 to 10.36%. Good recoveries (71.35–118.60%) were obtained for spiked drinking water samples, demonstrating that the LLE method is suitable for the analysis of drinking water samples. Dichloroiodomethane, bromochloroiodomethane, and dibromoiodomethane were identified in drinking water collected from 70 places of water purification plants in Korea. The samples were classified by disinfection systems, regions, seasons, and water sources. The concentration of I-THMs in pre-/postchlorination facilities owing to excess chlorine usage was higher than in ozonization/postchlorination facilities. Moreover, the concentrations of I-THMs were high in the coastal region, because of the large amount of halide ions from the sea. There was no seasonal difference; however, the concentration of I-THMs in pre-/postchlorination facilities increased in spring and summer. The concentration of I-THMs in water sources was high in samples from the Geum River and the Yeongsan and Sumjin River. The concentration and detection frequency of I-THMs in Han River and Nakdong River were high in the coastal region, because of numerous pre-/postchlorination facilities and the abundance of halide ions from the ocean.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-590
Number of pages10
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume640-641
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov 1

Fingerprint

Potable water
Drinking Water
Trihalomethanes
drinking water
liquid
Liquids
extraction method
Rivers
Water
halide
Chlorine
Ions
river
ion
chlorine
Ozonization
Disinfection
Ozone
Environmental Protection Agency
iodide

Keywords

  • Drinking water
  • GC–MS
  • Iodotrihalomethanes
  • Liquid-liquid extraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Determination of six iodotrihalomethanes in drinking water in Korea. / Woo, Bomi; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seungki; Lee, Jeongae; Choi, Jong-Ho; Pyo, Heesoo.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 640-641, 01.11.2018, p. 581-590.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Woo, Bomi ; Park, Ju Hyun ; Kim, Seungki ; Lee, Jeongae ; Choi, Jong-Ho ; Pyo, Heesoo. / Determination of six iodotrihalomethanes in drinking water in Korea. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2018 ; Vol. 640-641. pp. 581-590.
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AB - Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemicals regulated by Environmental Protection Agency's first drinking water regulation issued after the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Among THMs, iodotrihalomethanes (I-THMs) are produced by treating water containing iodides ion with chlorine or ozone. I-THMs are more carcinogenic and biotoxic than chlorinated or brominated THMs. The purpose of this study was to analyze of I-THMs in drinking water using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method with various extraction solvents. The calibration curves ranged from 0.01 to 20 ng/mL and the correlation coefficient showed a good linearity of 0.99 or more. The method detection limit ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 ng/mL. The accuracy of the LLE method ranged from 99.43 to 112.40%, and its precision ranged from 1.10 to 10.36%. Good recoveries (71.35–118.60%) were obtained for spiked drinking water samples, demonstrating that the LLE method is suitable for the analysis of drinking water samples. Dichloroiodomethane, bromochloroiodomethane, and dibromoiodomethane were identified in drinking water collected from 70 places of water purification plants in Korea. The samples were classified by disinfection systems, regions, seasons, and water sources. The concentration of I-THMs in pre-/postchlorination facilities owing to excess chlorine usage was higher than in ozonization/postchlorination facilities. Moreover, the concentrations of I-THMs were high in the coastal region, because of the large amount of halide ions from the sea. There was no seasonal difference; however, the concentration of I-THMs in pre-/postchlorination facilities increased in spring and summer. The concentration of I-THMs in water sources was high in samples from the Geum River and the Yeongsan and Sumjin River. The concentration and detection frequency of I-THMs in Han River and Nakdong River were high in the coastal region, because of numerous pre-/postchlorination facilities and the abundance of halide ions from the ocean.

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