Development of a closed air loop electropneumatic actuator for driving a pneumatic blood pump

Gi Seok Jeong, Chang Mo Hwang, Kyoung Won Nam, Chi Bum Ahn, Ho Chul Kim, Jung Joo Lee, Jaesoon Choi, Ho Sung Son, Yong Hu Fang, Kuk Hui Son, Choon Hak Lim, Kyung Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we developed a small pneumatic actuator that can be used as an extracorporeal biventricular assist device. It incorporated a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate blood-pumping pressure. The cylindrical unit is 88 ± 0.1 mm high, has a diameter of 150 ± 0.1 mm, and weighs 2.4 ± 0.01 kg. In vitro, maximal outflow at the highest pumping rate (PR) exceeded 8 L/min when two 55 mL blood sacs were used under an afterload pressure of 100 mm Hg. At a pumping rate of 100 beats per minute (bpm), maximal hydraulic efficiency was 9.34% when the unit supported a single ventricle and 13.8% when it supported both ventricles. Moreover, pneumatic efficiencies of the actuator were 17.3% and 33.1% for LVAD and BVAD applications, respectively. The energy equivalent pressure was 62.78∼208.10 mm Hg at a PR of 60∼100 bpm, and the maximal value of dP/dt during systole was 1269 mm Hg/s at a PR of 60 bpm and 979 mm Hg/s at a PR of 100 bpm. When the unit was applied to 15 calves, it stably pumped 3∼4 L/min of blood at 60 bpm, and no mechanical malfunction was experienced over 125 days of operation. We conclude that the presently developed pneumatic actuator can be utilized as an extracorporeal biventricular assist device.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)657-662
Number of pages6
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Closed air-loop system
  • Extracorporeal
  • Pneumatic actuator
  • Portable biventricular assist device

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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