Development of a personal passive air sampler for estimating exposure to effective chlorine while using chlorine-based disinfectants

Yeonjeong Ha, Yoonsub Kim, Eugene Song, Hyun Jung Yoo, Jung Hwan Kwon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


With an increasing use of indoor disinfectants such as chlorine (Cl2) and hypochlorous acid, a convenient sampler for estimating exposure to oxidants, such as effective chlorine, is necessary. Here, we developed a personal passive air sampler (PPAS) composed of a redox dye, o-dianisidine, in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet. o-Dianisidine readily reacts with gaseous oxidants generated by bleach usage, and its color changes as the reaction progresses; hence, personal exposure to effective chlorine could be easily detected by the naked eye, while cumulative exposure could be determined by measuring concentrations of o-dianisidine reacting with it. The PPAS was calibrated, and a sampling rate of 0.00253 m3/h was obtained using a small test chamber. The PPAS was tested with the help of ten volunteers whose personal exposure to Cl2-equivalent gas was estimated after bathrooms were cleaned using spray and liquid-type household disinfection products, and the accumulated exposure-gas concentrations ranged from 69 to 408 ppbv and 148 to 435 ppbv, respectively. These PPAS-derived exposure concentrations were approximately two orders lower than those estimated using ConsExpo, suggesting a significant overestimation by prevailing screening models, possibly due to the ignorance of transformation reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-565
Number of pages9
JournalIndoor Air
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar


  • bleach
  • chlorine
  • disinfection
  • inhalation exposure
  • o-dianisidine
  • personal passive air sampler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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