Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis

Seiichi Yamamoto, Takahiro Kobayashi, Jungyeol Yeom, Yuki Morishita, Hiroki Sato, Takanori Endo, Yoshiyuki Usuki, Kei Kamada, Akira Yoshikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios - Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2.6 Ga 2.4 O 12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm 3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1% for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5% for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two types of GAGGs are promising for developing a high resolution PET system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-295
Number of pages7
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume767
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 11
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Detectors
detectors
pulses
interactions
Pixels
pixels
Phosphors
scintillation counters
Photomultipliers
matrices
histograms
Crystals
valleys
high resolution
Photons
crystals
Silicon
Light emission
photons
Scintillation

Keywords

  • Decay time
  • DOI detector
  • GAGG
  • Pulse shape

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis. / Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Yeom, Jungyeol; Morishita, Yuki; Sato, Hiroki; Endo, Takanori; Usuki, Yoshiyuki; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira.

In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 767, 11.12.2014, p. 289-295.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yamamoto, Seiichi ; Kobayashi, Takahiro ; Yeom, Jungyeol ; Morishita, Yuki ; Sato, Hiroki ; Endo, Takanori ; Usuki, Yoshiyuki ; Kamada, Kei ; Yoshikawa, Akira. / Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis. In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 2014 ; Vol. 767. pp. 289-295.
@article{b3d7d1fe386e4423bd369d389f51c66e,
title = "Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis",
abstract = "A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios - Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2.6 Ga 2.4 O 12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm 3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1{\%} for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5{\%} for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two types of GAGGs are promising for developing a high resolution PET system.",
keywords = "Decay time, DOI detector, GAGG, Pulse shape",
author = "Seiichi Yamamoto and Takahiro Kobayashi and Jungyeol Yeom and Yuki Morishita and Hiroki Sato and Takanori Endo and Yoshiyuki Usuki and Kei Kamada and Akira Yoshikawa",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.001",
language = "English",
volume = "767",
pages = "289--295",
journal = "Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment",
issn = "0168-9002",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of GAGG depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detectors based on pulse shape analysis

AU - Yamamoto, Seiichi

AU - Kobayashi, Takahiro

AU - Yeom, Jungyeol

AU - Morishita, Yuki

AU - Sato, Hiroki

AU - Endo, Takanori

AU - Usuki, Yoshiyuki

AU - Kamada, Kei

AU - Yoshikawa, Akira

PY - 2014/12/11

Y1 - 2014/12/11

N2 - A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios - Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2.6 Ga 2.4 O 12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm 3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1% for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5% for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two types of GAGGs are promising for developing a high resolution PET system.

AB - A depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector is required for developing a high resolution and high sensitivity PET system. Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (GAGG fast: GAGG-F) is a promising scintillator for PET applications with high light output, no natural radioisotope and suitable light emission wavelength for semiconductor based photodetectors. However, no DOI detector based on pulse shape analysis with GAGG-F has been developed to date, due to the lack of appropriate scintillators of pairing. Recently a new variation of this scintillator with different Al/Ga ratios - Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2.6 Ga 2.4 O 12 (GAGG slow: GAGG-S), which has slower decay time was developed. The combination of GAGG-F and GAGG-S may allow us to realize high resolution DOI detectors based on pulse shape analysis. We developed and tested two GAGG phoswich DOI block detectors comprised of pixelated GAGG-F and GAGG-S scintillation crystals. One phoswich block detector comprised of 2×2×5 mm pixel that were assembled into a 5×5 matrix. The DOI block was optically coupled to a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 2-mm thick light guide. The other phoswich block detector comprised of 0.5×0.5×5 mm (GAGG-F) and 0.5×0.5×6 mm 3 (GAGG-S) pixels that were assembled into a 20×20 matrix. The DOI block was also optically coupled to the same Si-PM array with a 2-mm thick light guide. In the block detector of 2-mm crystal pixels (5×5 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram revealed excellent separation with an average energy resolution of 14.1% for 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 8.7. In the block detector that used 0.5-mm crystal pixels (20×20 matrix), the 2-dimensional histogram also showed good separation with energy resolution of 27.5% for the 662-keV gamma photons. The pulse shape spectrum displayed good separation with a peak-to-valley ratio of 6.5. These results indicate that phoswich DOI detectors with the two types of GAGGs are promising for developing a high resolution PET system.

KW - Decay time

KW - DOI detector

KW - GAGG

KW - Pulse shape

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907480748&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907480748&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.001

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2014.09.001

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84907480748

VL - 767

SP - 289

EP - 295

JO - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

JF - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

SN - 0168-9002

ER -