Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central Eastern Korea

Pil Sun Park, Kyung Yoon Kim, Ahreum Han, Woongsoon Jang, Yowhan Son, Myong Jong Yi, Byung Bae Park, Yeongmo Son

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-462
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Plant Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Long-lived pioneer species
  • Relay floristics pathway
  • Shade intolerance
  • Single cohort structure
  • Stand development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science


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