In this study, we investigated the application of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to neural tissue engineering. hESCs were differentiated to neural progenitor cells and cultured on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pLGA) microfibers. PLGA microfibers were prepared by using a microfluidic spinning system and aligned in parallel manner by winding the nascent fibers around a rotating frame. Neural progenitor cells were prepared by differentiating embryoid bodies (EBs). Neural progenitors cultured on the PLGA fibers were assessed for further proliferation and differentiation. To verify the expression of neural progenitor markers, cells were immunostained with neuronal specific antibodies. After six-days in culture, neuronal protein expression was confirmed with neuron specific beta III tubulin antibody (Tujl) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). After 20-days, cells were immunostained with microfilament associated protein (MAP) and neurofilament. The neurites of differentiated cells cultured for 20 days elongated along the direction of the PLGA microfibers. This result shows the possibility of using PLGA microfibers for neural tissue regeneration as a guidance cue for hESC derived cells.