Background: Chemotherapy-induced alimentary mucositis (AM) is difficult to prevent and treatment is rarely effective. Recent study have been showed that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 has protective in chemotherapy-induced AM. While the DPP-4 enzyme degrades this GLP-1, the DPP-4 inhibitor blocks the degradation process and raises the concentration of GLP-1. This study aimed to assess the role of DPP-4 inhibitor, a well-known hypoglycemic agent, on chemotherapy-induced AM. Methods: Twenty-four 6-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: control, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), DPP-4 inhibitor, and saline (DPP-4i), and DPP-4 inhibitor and 5-FU (DPP-4i + 5-FU). Mucositis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU (400 mg/kg). DPP-4 inhibitor (50 mg/kg) was administered orally for four days starting the day before 5-FU administration. Post 72 h of 5-FU injection, mice were sacrificed and body weight change, diarrhea score, villus height, villus/crypt ratio, histologic characteristics including goblet cell count, and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, were assessed. Results: Daily body weight change was not statistically significant between the 5-FU and the DPP-4i + 5-FU group (P = 0.571). Diarrhea score was significantly different between these two groups (P = 0.033). In the 5-FU group, the villus height was not maintained well, the epithelial lining was irregular, and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed. Goblet cell count in the DPP-4i + 5-FU group was significantly higher than in the 5-FU group (P = 0.007). However, in the DPP-4i + 5-FU group, the villus height, epithelial lining, and crypt structure were better maintained than in the 5-FU group. Compared with the control group, mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in the 5-FU group. Moreover, mRNA expression of TNF-α in the DPP-4i + 5-FU group was down-regulated compared to the 5-FU group. However, IL-6 in the 5-FU group was significantly down-regulated compared to the control, there was no significant difference in expression of IL-6 between the 5-FU and DPP4i + 5-FU group. Conclusion: DPP-4 inhibitor can improve 5-FU induced AM and, therefore, has potential as an alternative treatment for chemotherapy-induced AM.
- Alimentary mucositis
- Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research