The contribution of miRNA to the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is not well understood. Here we evaluated an integrative network of miRNAs and mRNA data to discover a possible master regulator of AKI. Microarray analyses of the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin were used to extract putative miRNAs that cause renal injury. Of them, miR-122 was mostly downregulated by cisplatin, whereas miR-34a was upregulated. A network integrating dysregulated miRNAs and altered mRNA expression along with target prediction enabled us to identify Foxo3 as a core protein to activate p53. The miR-122 inhibited Foxo3 translation as assessed using an miR mimic, an inhibitor, and a Foxo3 3′-UTR reporter. In a mouse model, Foxo3 levels paralleled the degree of tubular injury. The role of decreased miR-122 in inducing Foxo3 during AKI was strengthened by the ability of the miR-122 mimic or inhibitor to replicate results. Increase in miR-34a also promoted the acetylation of Foxo3 by repressing Sirt1. Consistently, cisplatin facilitated the binding of Foxo3 and p53 for activation, which depended not only on decreased miR-122 but also on increased miR-34a. Other nephrotoxicants had similar effects. Among targets of p53, Phlda3 was robustly induced by cisplatin, causing tubular injury. Consistently, treatment with miR mimics and/or inhibitors, or with Foxo3 and Phlda3 siRNAs, modulated apoptosis. Thus, our results uncovered an miR integrative network regulating toxicant-induced AKI and identified Foxo3 as a bridge molecule to the p53 pathway.