Aim: To investigate the prognostic significance of c-Kit gene mutation and DNA ploidy in gastointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods: A total of 55 cases of GISTs were studied for the expression of c-Kit by immunohistochemistry, and the c-Kit gene mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 were detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand confirmation polymarphism (PCR-SSCP) and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (D-HPLC) techniques. DNA ploidy was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Of the 55 cases of GISTs, 53 cases (96.4%) expressed c-Kit protein. The c-Kit gene mutations of exons 11 and 9 were found in 30 (54.5%) and 7 cases (12.7%), respectively. No mutations were found in exons 13 and 17. DNA aneuploidy was seen in 10 cases (18.2%). The c-Kit mutation positive GISTs were larger in size than the negative GISTs. The aneuploidy tumors were statistically associated with large size, high mitotic counts, high risk groups, high cellularity and severe nuclear atypia, and epithelioid type. There was a tendency that c-Kit mutations were more frequently found in aneuploidy GISTs. Conclusion: DNA aneuploidy and c-Kit mutations can be considered as prognostic factors in GISTs.
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