Access to urban greenspace has many benefits such as improved health and social cohesion. If access differs by population, these benefits make access to greenspace an environmental justice issue, but little is known regarding accessibility of parks among different sub-groups in Seoul, South Korea. We explored potential socioeconomic inequities for access to parks in Seoul measuring two park provision metrics: total park area per capita (TPPC), and park accessibility index determined by size and proximity of parks. We assessed correlations between a deprivation index for the 25 Gus (administrative unit equivalent to the US borough) and each park provision metric. Regression analyses were applied for the associations between eight socioeconomic indicators of the 424 Dongs (equivalent to the US neighborhood) and each park provision metric. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in percent elderly (≥65 years) (3.2%) was significantly associated with larger TPPC (1.6 m2/person, 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4). Park accessibility index was associated with more socioeconomic variables than was TPPC. An IQR increase in percent elderly and divorce rates (1.2/1000 population) was associated with increased park accessibility by 3571 km (95% CI: 1103, 6040) and decreased park accessibility by 1387 (95% CI: −2706, −67), respectively. An IQR increase in percentage of the population receiving social low-income support aid (2.2%) was associated with increased park accessibility (reflecting park size and proximity of parks) of residential parks near residential areas by 1568 (95% CI: 15, 3120). Results suggest higher park access for socioeconomically disadvantaged regions. Findings indicate that measures of detailed park access considering spatial proximity and park size may more accurately measure park inequity compared to more basic metrics (e.g. TPPC), which may bias estimation of park inequity by capturing only one characteristic of parks. Detailed park measures should be considered in urban planning and health studies of greenspace.
- Environmental justice
- Park provision
- Socioeconomic status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Environmental Science(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health