Theoretical descriptions of doubly resonant two-dimensional (2D) sum-frequency-generation (SFG) and difference-frequency-generation (DFG) spectroscopies of coupled-chromophore systems are presented. Despite that each electronic or vibrational chromophore is achiral, the interaction-induced chirality of a coupled multichromophore system in solution can be measured by using the doubly resonant 2D three-wave-mixing (3WM) spectroscopic method. An electronically coupled dimer, where each monomer is modeled as a simple two-level system, can have nonvanishing SFG (or DFG) properties, e.g., susceptibility in frequency domain or nonlinear response function in time domain, if the induced dipole vector of the dimer is not orthogonal to the vector product of the two monomer electronic transition dipole vectors. In order to demonstrate that these 2D 3WM spectroscopic methods can be used to determine the solution structure of a polypeptide, the authors carried out quantum chemistry calculations for an alanine dipeptide and obtained first- and second-order dipole derivatives associated with the amide I vibrational transitions of the dipeptide. It is shown that the numerically simulated 2D IR-IR SFG spectrum is highly sensitive to the dipeptide secondary structure and provides rich information on the one- and two-exciton states. It is believed that the theoretically proposed doubly resonant 2D 3WM spectroscopy, which can be considered to be an optical activity spectroscopy, will be of use in studying both structural and dynamical aspects of coupled multichromophore systems, such as proteins, nucleic acids, nanoparticle aggregates etc.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics