Draw solutes for FO: Model, polymer hydrogels, and nanoparticles

Gimun Gwak, David Inhyuk Kim, Seungkwan Hong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)


While forward osmosis (FO) processes have undergone great technological advancements, the control of reverse solute diffusion and the effective recovery of draw agents remain major challenges for the systematically sustainable and economically feasible use of FO. This article reviews polymer hydrogel- and nanoparticle-based draw agents that can (i) induce a high osmotic pressure, (ii) result in insignificant reverse diffusion of solutes, and (iii) be effectively regenerated by simple separation methods.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCurrent Trends and Future Developments on (Bio-) Membranes
Subtitle of host publicationReverse and Forward Osmosis: Principles, Applications, Advances
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9780128167779
ISBN (Print)9780128163645
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sept 17


  • Concentration polarization
  • Forward osmosis
  • High osmotic pressure
  • Hydrophilic polymer
  • MNPs
  • Nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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