Resource overhead problem caused by concatenation in quantum error correction (QEC) is of significant importance for the realization of fault-tolerant quantum computation (FTQC). To attack this problem, we propose a novel scheme by considering integrated FTQC architecture where the concatenation level is controlled dynamically; i.e., less (or more) concatenation levels are imposed by good (or poor) performance gates—we call this scheme “dynamic concatenation” in this sense. Such a dynamic concatenation is realizable in an integrated structure of FTQC, as the information of the concatenation can be communicated between classical system elements (e.g., compiler and system organizer) and the logical qubits in real-time. We derive the effective lower and upper bounds of the length of gate decomposition in order to achieve the practical advantage, namely of reduction of the overall operation time. By considering two non-trivial examples, it is shown that the aforementioned advantage can indeed be achieved in the presented scheme. Our result also provides an important scientific message, i.e., the interplay between “classical” and “quantum” can be helpful in QEC.
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