Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life

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Abstract

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1255-1263
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Nephrology
Volume30
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 29

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Keywords

  • Childhood obesity
  • Chronic kidney failure
  • Growth and development
  • Hypertension
  • Overnutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Nephrology

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