Effect of bismuth on the growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds in Sn-3.5Ag solder joints: A growth kinetic model

Joo Youl Huh, Sang Uk Han, Chang Yong Park

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8 Citations (Scopus)


The effect on the growth kinetics of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in solder/Cu joints, caused by adding Bi to eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder alloy, was examined at the aging temperatures of 150°C and 180°C. The Cu 6Sn 5 layer growth was significantly enhanced, but the Cu 3Sn layer growth was slightly retarded by the addition of Bi, resulting in significant growth enhancement of the total (Cu 6Sn 5+Cu 3Sn) IMC layer with increasing Bi addition. The IMC layer growth in the Bi-containing solder joints was accompanied by the accumulation of Bi ahead of the Cu 6Sn 5 layer that resulted in the formation of a liquid layer at the Cu 6Sn 5/solder interface. A kinetic model was developed for the planar growth of the Cu 6Sn 5 and Cu 3Sn layers in the solder joints, accounting for the existence of interfacial reaction barriers. Predictions from the kinetic model showed that the experimental results could be well explained by the hypothesis that the formation of a Bi-rich liquid layer at the Cu 6Sn 5/solder interface reduces the interfacial reaction barrier at the interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-131
Number of pages9
JournalMetals and Materials International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Apr 1



  • Growth kinetics
  • Interfacial reaction barriers
  • Intermetallic compounds
  • Sn-Ag-Bi solder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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