Effect of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on patients with connective tissue diseases and systemic sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Bon San Koo, Kyu Yong Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Shin Young Yim, Jae Bum Jun

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to analyze the literature systematically to determine the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) compared to those of patients with CTD-interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) without emphysema. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for relevant articles published before July 2019. Studies meeting all the following criteria were included: (1) original research studies evaluating the effect of CPFE on CTD, (2) studies that compared patients with CTD-CPFE to those with CTD-ILD without emphysema, and (3) studies providing data on physical capacity, pulmonary function, or death in patients with CTD. Clinical characteristics of patients with CTD-CPFE were compared with those of patients with CTD-ILD without emphysema, and the influence of CPFE on physical capacity, pulmonary function, and death was analyzed. Results: Six studies between 2013 and 2019 were included. Two hundred ninety-nine (29.5%) and 715 (70.5%) patients had CTD-CPFE and CTD-ILD without emphysema, respectively. Regarding the type of CTD, 711 (68.3%) patients had systemic sclerosis, 263 (25.3%) rheumatoid arthritis, and 67 (6.4%) other CTDs. Patients with CTD-CPFE had a higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis > 20% of the total lung volume, higher ratio of the forced vital capacity to the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), lower arterial oxygen pressure at rest, and lower DLCO compared to those in patients with CTD-ILD without emphysema. In addition, more deaths occurred among those with CTD-CPFE (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.75–4.96). Conclusion: CTD-CPFE is associated with worse physical and pulmonary function and more deaths compared to those in CTD-ILD without emphysema. These findings indicate the need for increased awareness and close monitoring of patients with CTD-CPFE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100
JournalArthritis Research and Therapy
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Connective tissue diseases
  • Emphysema
  • Interstitial lung diseases
  • Meta-analysis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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