Effect of esterification reaction of citric acid and ethylene glycol on the formation of multi-shelled cobalt oxide powders with superior electrochemical properties

Gi Dae Park, Jong Heun Lee, Jung Kul Lee, Yun Chan Kang

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In this study, for the first time, polymeric precursors have been used in the preparation of yolk-shell powders using a large-scale spray drying process. An esterification reaction between the carboxyl group of citric acid and the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol inside the droplet produced organic polymers during the drying process of the droplet. During the spray drying process, the polymeric precursors enabled the formation of multi-shell cobalt oxide yolk-shell powders with superior electrochemical properties. The maximum number of shells of the particles in the yolk-shell powders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C were six, five, and four, respectively. The initial discharge capacities of the cobalt oxide yolk-shell powders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C were 1,188, 1,331, and 1,110 mAh·g−1, and their initial charge capacities were 868, 1,005, and 798 mAh·g−1, respectively. The discharge capacities of the powders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C after 100 cycles were 815, 958, and 670 mAh·g−1, respectively, and their corresponding capacity retentions measured after the first cycles were 92%, 93%, and 82%, respectively. The pure phase Co3O4 yolk-shell powders post-treated at 400 °C had low charge transfer resistance and high lithium-ion diffusion rate.

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1738-1748
Number of pages11
JournalNano Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec 19



  • energy storage
  • lithium battery
  • spray drying
  • synthesis design
  • yolk-shell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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