Effect of foot deformity on conventional mechanical axis deviation and ground mechanical axis deviation during single leg stance and two leg stance in genu varum

Sameer Shrikrishna Desai, Gautam M. Shetty, Hae Ryong Song, Seok Hyun Lee, Tae Young Kim, Chung Yong Hur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)


We assessed the effect of foot deformity on the loading axis of lower limbs in 33 patients with genu varum (25 bilateral and eigth unilateral) caused by varying etiologies including achondroplasia, cerebral palsy, prior trauma, rickets, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and primary osteoarthritis using single leg stance and both leg stance radiographs. Deviation at the knee from the hip ankle line (conventional) and hip foot line (centre of hip to centre of heel) was calculated. A comparison was made between single leg stance and two leg stance for tibiocalcaneal angle, mechanical axis angle, knee and ankle joint line convergence angle, conventional mechanical axis deviation (MADC) and ground mechanical axis deviation (MADG). In addition comparisons were also made among three groups formed depending on the tibiocalcaneal angle and MADC-MADG difference for all the above measurements. Mechanical axis deviation (calculated using the two methods) varied with the talocalcaneal angle and single leg stance. Patients with a fixed subtalar varus and with severe genu varum, where the normal compensatory subtalar eversion could not compensate showed that conventional mechanical axis deviation was significantly higher by 3.4 ± 2.4 mm and ground mechanical axis deviation degrees was significantly higher by 3.8 ± 3.2 mm in single leg stance when compared to two leg stance (p < .0001). Foot deformity should be included during preoperative evaluation and planning for knee deformity correction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)452-457
Number of pages6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Dec 1



  • Genu varum
  • Mechanical axis deviation
  • Single leg stance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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