To prepare the sustained release vitamin C carriers, vitamin C was successfully encapsulated in tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linked chitosan (TPP-chitosan) microspheres by the spray-drying method at different manufacturing conditions. Manufacturing parameters (inlet temperature, liquid flow rate, chitosan concentration and volume of 1% w/ v TPP solution) had a significant influence on the characteristics of thus prepared microspheres. The optimum spray-drying conditions such as inlet temperature, liquid flow rate and compressed air flow rate for the encapsulation of vitamin C in TPP-chitosan microspheres was found to be 170°C, 2 ml min-1 and 10 l min-1, respectively. The size and yield of the TPP-chitosan microspheres ranged from 3.9-7.3 μm and 54.5-67.5%, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of TPP-chitosan microspheres ranged from 45.72-68.7% and it decreased with the increasing volume of 1% w/v TPP solution. At the same cross-linking extent, the encapsulation efficiency of TPP-chitosan microspheres increased when the concentration of chitosan was increased from 0.5-1% w/v. Effect of volume of 1% w/v TPP solution on the surface morphology of chitosan microspheres was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These studies revealed that chitosan solution (250 ml) cross-linked with 15 ml 1% w/v TPP solution produced more porous microspheres than that cross-linked with 5 and 10 ml TPP solution. The release rate of vitamin C from TPP-chitosan microspheres decreased when the concentration of chitosan was increased from 0.5 1.0% w/v. Vitamin C release rate was also modulated by varying the volume of 1% w/v TPP solution. The release rate of vitamin C from TPP-chitosan microspheres decreased with increasing volume (5-15 ml) of 1% w/v TPP solution.
- Controlled release
- Vitamin C
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry