Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells

Joo Youl Huh, Kyoung Kook Hong, Sung Bin Cho, Sung Kyun Park, Byung Chul Lee, Kuninori Okamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to understand the mechanism underlying the formation of Ag thick-film contacts to the emitter Si of crystalline Si solar cells, the reactions between Pb-free Ag pastes containing Bi 2O 3-based glass frit and an n-type (1 0 0) Si wafer during firing at 800 °C were examined by varying the ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ). When the Bi 2O 3-based glass frit alone was reacted with the Si wafer, the redox reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was insensitive to PO 2 in the firing ambient. When a mixture of glass frit with Ag powder was reacted with the Si wafer, however, the firing reaction was significantly influenced by PO 2 in the ambient gas. With increasing PO 2 , the reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was gradually suppressed, whereas the reaction producing Ag crystallites became increasingly active, resulting in more Ag crystallites at the contact interface. The present study results strongly support the hypothesis that the Ag crystallites are formed by the reaction between the dissolved A g+ and O 2- ions in the molten glass and Si wafer without the aid of liquid Bi formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Chemistry and Physics
Volume131
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec 15

Fingerprint

Partial pressure
partial pressure
Solar cells
solar cells
Crystallites
frit
Oxygen
Glass
oxygen
wafers
crystallites
Liquids
glass
Redox reactions
liquids
Ointments
Thick films
Powders
Molten materials
Gases

Keywords

  • Crystal growth
  • Glasses
  • Precipitation
  • Semiconductors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells. / Huh, Joo Youl; Hong, Kyoung Kook; Cho, Sung Bin; Park, Sung Kyun; Lee, Byung Chul; Okamoto, Kuninori.

In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 131, No. 1-2, 15.12.2011, p. 113-119.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Huh, Joo Youl ; Hong, Kyoung Kook ; Cho, Sung Bin ; Park, Sung Kyun ; Lee, Byung Chul ; Okamoto, Kuninori. / Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells. In: Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2011 ; Vol. 131, No. 1-2. pp. 113-119.
@article{182289ea744644ce8a813c94f2a91b0c,
title = "Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells",
abstract = "In order to understand the mechanism underlying the formation of Ag thick-film contacts to the emitter Si of crystalline Si solar cells, the reactions between Pb-free Ag pastes containing Bi 2O 3-based glass frit and an n-type (1 0 0) Si wafer during firing at 800 °C were examined by varying the ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ). When the Bi 2O 3-based glass frit alone was reacted with the Si wafer, the redox reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was insensitive to PO 2 in the firing ambient. When a mixture of glass frit with Ag powder was reacted with the Si wafer, however, the firing reaction was significantly influenced by PO 2 in the ambient gas. With increasing PO 2 , the reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was gradually suppressed, whereas the reaction producing Ag crystallites became increasingly active, resulting in more Ag crystallites at the contact interface. The present study results strongly support the hypothesis that the Ag crystallites are formed by the reaction between the dissolved A g+ and O 2- ions in the molten glass and Si wafer without the aid of liquid Bi formation.",
keywords = "Crystal growth, Glasses, Precipitation, Semiconductors",
author = "Huh, {Joo Youl} and Hong, {Kyoung Kook} and Cho, {Sung Bin} and Park, {Sung Kyun} and Lee, {Byung Chul} and Kuninori Okamoto",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.07.075",
language = "English",
volume = "131",
pages = "113--119",
journal = "Materials Chemistry and Physics",
issn = "0254-0584",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells

AU - Huh, Joo Youl

AU - Hong, Kyoung Kook

AU - Cho, Sung Bin

AU - Park, Sung Kyun

AU - Lee, Byung Chul

AU - Okamoto, Kuninori

PY - 2011/12/15

Y1 - 2011/12/15

N2 - In order to understand the mechanism underlying the formation of Ag thick-film contacts to the emitter Si of crystalline Si solar cells, the reactions between Pb-free Ag pastes containing Bi 2O 3-based glass frit and an n-type (1 0 0) Si wafer during firing at 800 °C were examined by varying the ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ). When the Bi 2O 3-based glass frit alone was reacted with the Si wafer, the redox reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was insensitive to PO 2 in the firing ambient. When a mixture of glass frit with Ag powder was reacted with the Si wafer, however, the firing reaction was significantly influenced by PO 2 in the ambient gas. With increasing PO 2 , the reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was gradually suppressed, whereas the reaction producing Ag crystallites became increasingly active, resulting in more Ag crystallites at the contact interface. The present study results strongly support the hypothesis that the Ag crystallites are formed by the reaction between the dissolved A g+ and O 2- ions in the molten glass and Si wafer without the aid of liquid Bi formation.

AB - In order to understand the mechanism underlying the formation of Ag thick-film contacts to the emitter Si of crystalline Si solar cells, the reactions between Pb-free Ag pastes containing Bi 2O 3-based glass frit and an n-type (1 0 0) Si wafer during firing at 800 °C were examined by varying the ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ). When the Bi 2O 3-based glass frit alone was reacted with the Si wafer, the redox reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was insensitive to PO 2 in the firing ambient. When a mixture of glass frit with Ag powder was reacted with the Si wafer, however, the firing reaction was significantly influenced by PO 2 in the ambient gas. With increasing PO 2 , the reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was gradually suppressed, whereas the reaction producing Ag crystallites became increasingly active, resulting in more Ag crystallites at the contact interface. The present study results strongly support the hypothesis that the Ag crystallites are formed by the reaction between the dissolved A g+ and O 2- ions in the molten glass and Si wafer without the aid of liquid Bi formation.

KW - Crystal growth

KW - Glasses

KW - Precipitation

KW - Semiconductors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84865743224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84865743224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.07.075

DO - 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.07.075

M3 - Article

VL - 131

SP - 113

EP - 119

JO - Materials Chemistry and Physics

JF - Materials Chemistry and Physics

SN - 0254-0584

IS - 1-2

ER -