Effect of oxygen partial pressure on Ag crystallite formation at screen-printed Pb-free Ag contacts of Si solar cells

Joo Youl Huh, Kyoung Kook Hong, Sung Bin Cho, Sung Kyun Park, Byung Chul Lee, Kuninori Okamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to understand the mechanism underlying the formation of Ag thick-film contacts to the emitter Si of crystalline Si solar cells, the reactions between Pb-free Ag pastes containing Bi2O3-based glass frit and an n-type (1 0 0) Si wafer during firing at 800 °C were examined by varying the ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ). When the Bi2O3-based glass frit alone was reacted with the Si wafer, the redox reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was insensitive to PO2 in the firing ambient. When a mixture of glass frit with Ag powder was reacted with the Si wafer, however, the firing reaction was significantly influenced by PO2 in the ambient gas. With increasing PO2 , the reaction leading to the formation of liquid Bi was gradually suppressed, whereas the reaction producing Ag crystallites became increasingly active, resulting in more Ag crystallites at the contact interface. The present study results strongly support the hypothesis that the Ag crystallites are formed by the reaction between the dissolved Ag+ and O2- ions in the molten glass and Si wafer without the aid of liquid Bi formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Chemistry and Physics
Volume131
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec 15

Keywords

  • Crystal growth
  • Glasses
  • Precipitation
  • Semiconductors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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