Objective: To evaluate the treatment outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein thrombosis, concerning survival and treatment response of thrombosis. Methods: Forty-five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had portal vein thrombosis treated from March 2005 to March 2011 were the subjects of this study. The median total dose was 61.2 Gy (range 38-65 Gy). A daily radiation dose of 1.8-2.5 Gy was administered at a frequency of five fractions per week. The clinical target volume included portal vein thrombosis with or without primary tumour with clinical consideration. Results: Three of the 45 patients (6.7%) showed complete remission of portal vein thrombosis, 25 patients (55.6%) showed partial response, 14 patients (31%) had stable disease and 3 patients (6.7%) had progressive disease. The median and the 1-year survival rate of the responders (complete remission + progressive disease) were 16.7 months and 63.7%, respectively, and those of the non-responders were 8 months and 28.2%, respectively (P = 0.003). A univariate analysis revealed that thrombosis response, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, maximum tumour size, tumour bilaterality, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program stage, Okuda stage, hepatic arterial infusion, hepatitis B 'e' antigen and hepatitis C antibody were statistically significant prognostic factors affecting survival. In a multivariate analysis, thrombosis response, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program stage and Okuda stage were found to be statistically significant. No clinically significant radiation-induced liver disease was noted. One grade 3 late complication (duodenal ulcer) was reported. Conclusions: High-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy yielded a response rate of 62.3%. It is a safe and effective treatment prolonging the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein thrombosis.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Portal vein thrombosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research