Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants of air, water and soil, and are produced by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has characterized PAHs as carcinogens. In this study, we investigated the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), which is the most carcinogenic member of the PAHs, on Jurkat cell protein by proteomic analysis. Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of B(a)P (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 40 μM) for 24 or 48 h and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)- 2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays were carried out to determine cytotoxicity and a Comet assay was used to determinate genotoxicity. The cytotoxicity assays showed that 2.5 μM of B(a)P was the maximal concentration that did not cause any toxicity, but nevertheless, at this level B(a)P produced significant DNA damage in Jurkat cells at 48 h. Proteomic analysis using three different p/ ranges and large two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed 3427 protein spots. A total of 46 (13 up- and 33 down-regulated) proteins were identified as biomarkers of B(a)P and showed dose-dependent expressions in Jurkat T-cell line exposed to B(a)P. Of these, 27 protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Two functionally differentiated protein groups were found. The protein group involving apoptosis and tumor suppression were found to be up-regulated, and B(a)P down-regulated enzyme was involved in energy metabolism, DNA synthesis and in cell structure and motility.
- Jurkat cell
- Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry
- Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology