Effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation on preoperative anxiety, pain and endocrine response

Se Hwa Lee, Woon Young Kim, Chang Hyung Lee, Too Jae Min, Yoon Sook Lee, Jae Hwan Kim, Young Cheol Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is used as a treatment for depression and anxiety, and as an adjunctive intervention for pain management. This prospective study investigated whether CES could decrease preoperative anxiety, the injection pain of rocuronium, postoperative pain and stress hormone levels. Methods: Female patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to two groups, to receive either no pretreatment (control group) or CES pretreatment. Anxiety score, withdrawal response on rocuronium injection, and pain scores at 1, 4, 12 and 24 h post surgery were evaluated. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and glucose levels were measured. Patients were blinded to the treatment condition. Results: Fifty patients entered the study (n=25 per group). Anxiety score and withdrawal responses during rocuronium injection were significantly reduced in the CES group compared with the control group. Pain score was significantly lower in the CES group than in the control group, 1 h and 4 h post surgery. There were no significant differences in ACTH, cortisol and glucose levels. Conclusions: CES pretreatment appears to reduce the level of preoperative anxiety, injection pain of rocuronium and postoperative pain. However, CES pretreatment did not affect stress hormone responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1788-1795
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec


  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  • anxiety
  • cortisol
  • cranial electrotherapy stimulation
  • postoperative pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical

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