Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that interfere with the expression, synthesis, and activity of hormones in organisms. They are released into the environment from flame retardants and products containing plasticizers. Persistent pesticides, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene, also disrupt the endocrine system through interaction with hormone receptors. Endogenous hormones, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), are released in the urine and feces of farm animals and seep into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems through sewage. Pigs are widely used as animal models to determine the effects of EDCs because they are physiologically, biochemically, and histologically similar to humans. EDCs primarily disrupt the reproductive and nervous systems of pigs. Moreover, embryonic development during the prenatal and early postnatal periods is particularly sensitive to EDCs. Mycotoxins, such as zearalenone, are food contaminants that alter hormonal activities in pigs. Mycotoxins also alter the innate immune system in pigs, making them vulnerable to diseases. It has been reported that farm animals are exposed to various types of EDCs, which accumulate in tissues, such as those of gonads, livers, and intestines. There is a lack of an integrated understanding of the impact of EDCs on porcine reproduction and development. Thus, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of literature regarding the effects of EDCs in pigs.
- Bisphenol A
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals
- Farm animal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis