In order to reduce the toxicity of both raw wastewater and effluent from a rubber products factory, γ-ray treatment was applied at different dose levels. The γ-ray treatment did not completely removed the toxicity, suggesting that there were major toxicants other than destroyable organic compounds. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phase 1) was conducted to characterize major toxicants using Daphnia magna. The suspected toxicants in both raw wastewater and effluent were mostly filterable materials and EDTA chelatable metals and, to some degree, non-polar organic compounds. Anion-exchange removable compounds, most likely organics, were found only in raw wastewater. Metal analyses showed that zinc and copper concentrations were above levels causing toxicity to D. magna. After 20 kGy γ-ray treatment of raw wastewater, filtrations both at pH 3 and at the initial pH (pH 3.6) showed dramatic change (9 to 77% and 29 to 85%, respectively) in toxicity reduction, suggesting the formation of toxic filterable materials which are stable even at acidic conditions. Unlike raw wastewater, there was no significant change in TIE results after γ-ray treatment at 20 kGy for rubber effluent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Analytical Chemistry