Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells under chemical hypoxia

Jong Hyun Oh, Jaeryung Oh, Ariunaa Togloom, Seong Woo Kim, Kuhl Huh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells under chemical hypoxia. Materials and Methods: RPE cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in either untreated media (control group), media treated with 200μM cobalt chloride (hypoxia group) or media treated with both 200μM cobalt chloride and 100μg/ml GBE (hypoxia+GBE group) for various amounts of time. HIF-1α and VEGF expression were compared between groups. HIF-1α and VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HIF-1α of extracted nuclei and VEGF of the media were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of HIF-1α was also assessed with Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Results: HIF-1α mRNA, VEGF mRNA, HIF-1α and VEGF levels were higher in the hypoxia group compared with the control group; however, real-time PCR revealed decreased expression of HIF-1α mRNA and VEGF mRNA in the hypoxia+GBE group compared with the hypoxia group. In the ELISA, the HIF-1α and VEGF protein concentrations also decreased with GBE treatment. Western blot and immunostaining showed that the intensity of HIF-1α signals in the hypoxia+GBE group was lower than that of the hypoxia group. Conclusion: GBE reduced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in RPE cells cultured under chemical hypoxia in vitro.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1072-1082
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemical hypoxia
  • Ginkgo biloba extract
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
  • Retinal pigment epithelial cell
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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