This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25 °C) on reproduction, oxidative stress, and copper (Cu) toxicity in Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to elevated temperature significantly decreased the number of offspring per female per day, the time to first brood, and body length compared to exposure to the optimal temperature (p50=34±3 µg L−1) substantially increased the median effective concentration of Cu in all generations compared to exposure to 20 °C (EC50=25±3 µg L−1), indicating a decrease in acute toxicity at elevated temperature. However, elevated temperature significantly increased the oxidative stress induced by a sublethal concentration of Cu (10 µg L−1). The interaction between elevated temperature and Cu exposure appears to be synergistic; however, this needs to be confirmed using multiple generations in a long-term experiment.
- Heavy metal
- Oxidative stress
- Thermal stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health