This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25 °C) on reproduction, oxidative stress, and copper (Cu) toxicity in Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to elevated temperature significantly decreased the number of offspring per female per day, the time to first brood, and body length compared to exposure to the optimal temperature (p<0.05). In addition, elevated temperature induced a significantly higher production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p<0.05). These findings suggest that D. magna likely responded to thermal stress by investing more energy into defense mechanisms, rather than growth and reproduction. In addition, oxidative stress at the elevated temperature gradually increased with each generation, possibly owing to the reduced fitness of the offspring. Exposing D. magna to 25 °C (EC50=34±3 µg L−1) substantially increased the median effective concentration of Cu in all generations compared to exposure to 20 °C (EC50=25±3 µg L−1), indicating a decrease in acute toxicity at elevated temperature. However, elevated temperature significantly increased the oxidative stress induced by a sublethal concentration of Cu (10 µg L−1). The interaction between elevated temperature and Cu exposure appears to be synergistic; however, this needs to be confirmed using multiple generations in a long-term experiment.
- Heavy metal
- Oxidative stress
- Thermal stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis