Mycotoxins are secondary products produced by fungi in cereals and are frequently found in the livestock industry as contaminants of farm animal feed. Studies analyzing feed mycotoxins have been conducted worldwide and have confirmed the presence of mycotoxins with biological activity, including aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol, in a large proportion of feed samples. Exposure to mycotoxins can cause immunotoxicity and impair reproductive function in farm animals. In addition, exposure of tissues, such as the kidneys, liver, and intestines, to mycotoxins can exert histopathological changes that can interfere with animal growth and survival. This review describes previous studies regarding the presence of major mycotoxins in the feed of farm animals, especially pigs and poultry. Moreover, it describes the adverse effects of mycotoxins in farm animals following exposure, as well as the biological activity of mycotoxins in animal-derived cells. Mycotoxins have been shown to regulate signaling pathways, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and proliferation in porcine and bovine cells. A clear understanding of the effects of mycotoxins on farm animals will help reduce farm household economic loss and address the health concerns of people who consume these meat and dairy products.
- Farm animal
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis