Efficient external radiation is essential for solar cells to achieve high power conversion efficiency (PCE). The classical limit of 1/2n2 (n, refractive index) for electroluminescence quantum efficiency (ELQE) has recently been approached by perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Photon recycling (PR) and light scattering can provide an opportunity to surpass this limit. We investigate the role of PR and scattering in practical device operation using a radiative PSC with an ELQE (13.7% at 1 sun) that significantly surpasses the classical limit (7.4%). We experimentally analyze the contributions of PR and scattering to this strong radiation. A novel optical model reveals an increase of 39 mV in the voltage of our PSC. This analysis can provide design principles for future PSCs to approach the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit.
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