Background: Smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Coronary blood flow velocity (CFV) can be measured directly with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) which is conducted immediately after smoking. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chronic and acute effects of smoking on coronary blood flow and coronary flow reserve (CFR) by the use of TTDE. Methods: Healthy volunteers (11 smokers and 9 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 27 ± 3 years were included. Smoking was abstained for at least 4 hours before the study. CFV was measured at the distal left anterior descending coronary artery by TTDE at baseline and during intravenous adenosine infusion (140 μg/kg per minute) in all participants. For smokers, CFV was measured immediately after consecutively smoking two cigarettes and during adenosine infusion. Results: CFR and coronary vascular resistance index (CVRI) showed no significant difference between nonsmokers and smokers (CFR: 3.5 ± 0.8 vs 3.6 ± 0.6, P = ns, CVRI: 0.28 vs 0.28, P = ns) at baseline. CFR significantly decreased (3.6 ± 0.6 to 2.8 ± 0.7, P = 0.008) and CVRI markedly increased (0.28 to 0.35, P = 0.012) after smoking. Conclusion: After 4 hours of abstinence from smoking, CFR and CVRI in smokers were similar to those of nonsmokers. However, consecutively smoking two cigarettes acutely reduced CFR and increased CVRI. These findings suggested that smoking could reduce coronary blood flow immediately, even in healthy people.
- Coronary blood flow velocity
- Coronary flow reserve
- Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine