Effects of therapeutic exercise on sea sand on pain, fatigue, and balance in patients with chronic ankle instability: a feasibility study

Ho Jin Shin, Sung Hyeon Kim, Eun Tae Jeon, Min-Goo Lee, Sung Jae Lee, Hwi Young Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common disease following ankle sprain and appears balance and gait problems, pain, and fatigue. This study aimed to examine the effect of therapeutic exercise performed on sea sand on pain, fatigue, and balance ability in patients with CAI. METHODS: This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with a Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) score of less than 27 were selected. 22 subjects were randomly assigned to the sea sand (SS) group (N.=11) or the self-management (SM) group (N.=11). The SS group performed the therapeutic exercise on sea sand and the SM group conducted the exercises on a firm surface at home 5 times over the course of a week. To measure static balance, center of pressure (COP) of one-leg standing on the force plate was assessed. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure pain and fatigue. RESULTS: The SS group showed statistically significant improvements in all static balance outcomes (COP-area, COP-average velocity, minor-axis, major-axis) after the intervention (P<0.05), while the SM group did not show a significant change in all static balance parameters (P>0.05). Also, the SS group showed statistically significant improvements in pain and fatigue (P<0.05). All outcomes except major axis showed statistically significant differences between SS group and SM group at change value (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic exercise on sea sand effectively improved balance and decreased pain and fatigue. Thus, it can be considered a rehabilitation method for CAI patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1200-1205
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 1


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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