Large amounts of plasticizers, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP), are added to various polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. To assess the human exposure to these plasticizers on using PVC products, it is important to know their migration rate. However, conventional migration tests conducted at a fixed time and temperature are often insufficient for determining possible variations in migration rates with respect to time, temperature, and sebum layer. In this study, the migration rates of DEHP and DOTP from five PVC products were measured using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sampler at different times and temperatures, in the presence and absence of artificial sebum. Although the migrated mass of the plasticizers increased over time, the average migration rate decreased. The average migration rates increased with increasing temperature and in the presence of an artificial sebum layer between the product and the PDMS sampler. When the artificial sebum layer was added, the average migration rate increased considerably by a factor of 1.5–14, suggesting that sebum should be considered to avoid the underestimation of dermal exposure to highly hydrophobic plasticizers, such as DEHP and DOTP. Based on the measured values, a conceptual analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the difference in the migration rate of plasticizers caused by the difference between the time set for the migration test and the exposure time when the product is used. To reduce uncertainties and the potential underestimation of dermal exposure, an appropriate time for the experiment should be set to simulate the exposure scenario of a given product.
- Artificial sebum
- Exposure assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis